For A Sparkling Finish

This stained glass tutorial exposes the myth of polish and wax. In I share expert tips on polishing, applying patina and waxing copper foiled projects. This is the last thing to do before hanging your finished panel up for everyone to admire. It takes a fair bit of effort, but – as always – is worth spending time on to get a sparkling even finish.

Stained glass patina comes in black and copper, with each needing a slightly different process. This stained glass tutorial concentrates on copper, with additional notes about what to do if using black patina.

If you struggle to get an even finish with patina or suffer with that horrible white residue I have some ideas to help you out. You might find them surprising.

My Stained Glass Made Perfect course has helped many people achieve a better finish to their projects. After all that effort you deserve a shiny panel! The course is self-paced and online so you can learn these polish and patina techniques even if you are unable to get to a class. You can find out more about it here Stained Glass Made Perfect.

What You Need

Materials for patina and polishing stained glass
Materials for patina and polishing stained glass

Green scrubby, Q-tips, Copper Patina, Wax, Polish, Soft cloth, Toothbrush, All Purpose cleaner, Paper towels, Access to water.

Make sure you’ve got the correct patina. There’s different Black Patina for lead and solder and another type of  black patina for zinc. Patina doesn’t work on lead free solder.

Stained Glass Tutorial – Patina and Polish

1. Cleaning Tutorial

It’s very important to do this thoroughly to remove any acids from the flux. Baking soda in the water can help reduce the white ‘crusting’ that sometimes forms. Some people swear by copper sulphate for cleaning. If you don’t have access to water you can use Flux remover Kwik-Cleaner . It works really well and helps prevent mouldy patina.

washing stained glass panel
Scrub stained glass solder clean
  • Clean all the flux off the solder with all purpose cleaner. You can buy flux remover for this, but all purpose cleaner works just as well
  • Put lots of cleaning fluid on and make sure it froths up
  • Go over every solder seam thoroughly. You can use a toothbrush if it helps
  • Dry it off with a paper towel
  • Your solder should now be silver
  • Next you have to polish the solder. Yes, you did read that correctly; polish first before patina.

Exposing The Polish and Wax Myth

Most people – including me many moons ago – were taught to polish last thing. But I’d like you to think again about this…

Polish contains an abrasive element. As such it is better used for the final clean before patina or wax. It gets rid of the very last of the grime off your solder lines. That’s why the cloth still picks up black dirt when polishing.

Some people complain that their final polish removes the patina they’ve just put on… can you see why this is happening? Correct; because the abrasive element removes the patina.

They go around in circles putting patina on and accidentally polishing it off.


After experimenting over the years with different polishes, patinas and waxes I have developed this roadmap:

Clean >> Polish >>> Patina (optional, if you want your solder lines a colour other than silver) >>> Wax

You may have to experiment with the different brands but I’m confident that this roadmap will help you produce a lasting shiny finish.

2. Polishing Tutorial

I use a standard car polish. If you’re using black patina, you don’t need to polish at this stage, go straight to 3. below.

polishing stained glass tutorial
Remove final dirt and grime with polish
  • Put some polish on a soft rag and rub over the panel
  • Keep buffing it up until the black residue all but disappears (where does all that black come from?!)
  • If you want your panel silver, you’re done with this stage – only waxing left!

3. Stained Glass Patina Tutorial

Some people have trouble with patina being dull or not ‘taking’. This could be down to minerals in the water where you are. If this is the case, try buying distilled water and using it for the final rinse. I’ve found that there’s always a degree of experimentation with stained glass!

stained glass patina on solder
Brushing stained glass patina on to solder
  • With a Q-tip or cheap brush, apply the copper patina to the solder seams.
  • Don’t be mean with the patina, and make sure that you cover every last bit of the solder
  • Dry thoroughly with paper towel
  • Let the panel air dry before the final polish with wax. I leave mine on my easel so that both sides can dry

4. Final Buff Up With Wax

Final wax of stained glass patina
  • Repeat 2. above, but this time using wax.
  • Let the wax dry completely before buffing
  • For ongoing sparkliness, simply repeat these Final Buff Up instructions every so ofter to make your panel as good as new.
finished stain glass panel with copper patina
Finished shiny stained glass panel

Helpful Resources

At 9 minutes, this stained glass tutorial is a bit long, but if you come in at 2mins 30secs you’ll hit the most useful bit. It’s definitely worth watching.

Stained glass video tutorial on patina

You’re done! You now have a bright shiny copper masterpiece ready to hang. Congratulations 🙂

Stained Glass Soldering Temperature

Adding Hooks to Stained Glass FrancesCopper Foil ConstructionStained Glass TutorialsPatina and PolishFor A Sparkling Finish This stained glass tutorial exposes the myth of polish and wax. In I share expert tips on polishing, applying patina and waxing copper foiled projects. This is the last thing to do before hanging your finished panel up for everyone to admire. It takes a fair bit...Create beautiful things. I'll show you how.
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